Universal Accessibility of National Parks in South Africa and Zimbabwe: Park Management Perceptions.

Tourism Planning & Development, pp.1-20

This study sought to establish the perceptions of the management of National Parks in South Africa and Zimbabwe with respect to making their parks universally accessible. This study was set against the background of many people with disabilities who are willing and financially able to patron national parks being denied the opportunity to do so due to various barriers. Using a qualitative approach, the researchers explored the views of the management of South African National Parks (SANPARKS) and Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority (ZimParks) regarding the universal accessibility of National Parks. The study revealed that, generally, the management of the said parks appreciate the plight of people with disabilities who want to visit their parks and would have wanted the parks to be accessible to all people. However, the managers from SANPARKS seemed more willing and prepared to make their parks universally accessible compared to their counterparts from ZimParks.

Sustainability of Wildlife Tourism Tourist Perceptions on Threats to Wildlife Tourism in Two State Protected Areas in Zimbabwe

The study sought to determine tourist perceptions on the threats to the sustainability of wildlife tourism using a case study of two state-protected areas in Zimbabwe. Using close-ended questionnaires, we collected data from 128 tourists in December 2015. Results show respondents generally perceived all the seven tested threats as serious, i.e., illegal hunting, destruction of wildlife habitats, human-wildlife conflict, lack of involvement of local people in national park tourism, lack of benefits from the national park to local communities, negative attitudes towards tourism by local residents, and poor local community and national park relationships. Moreover, respondents generally had similar perceptions on the impacts of the threats on the sustainability of wildlife tourism regardless of their gender, age, level of education and income. We conclude tourists are more environmentally conscious and well informed of the threats to wildlife tourism in Zimbabwe, which may indicate willingness to support conservation. It is thus necessary for park management to promote local people participation in ecotourism, enhance innovative law enforcement measures as well as motivate tourists to participate in conservation. Results could help broaden policy decision-makers’ knowledge base in response to sustainable wildlife tourism development challenges.

High Average-Utility Itemsets Mining: A Survey

Applied Intelligence, pp.1-38.

HUIM (High utility itemsets mining) is a sub-division of data mining dealing with the task to obtain promising patterns in the quantitative datasets. A variant of HUIM is to discover the HAUIM (High average-utility itemsets mining) where average-utility measure is used to obtain the utility of itemsets. HAUIM is the refined version of FIM (Frequent itemset mining) problem and has various applications in the field of market basket analysis, bio-informatics, text mining, network traffic analysis, product recommendation and e-learning among others. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art methods of HAUIM to mine the HAUIs (High average-utility itemsets) from the static and dynamic datasets since the induction of the HAUIM problem. We discuss the pros and cons of each category of mining approaches in detail. The taxonomy of HAUIM is presented according to the mining approaches. Finally,various extensions, future directions and research opportunities of HAUIM algorithms are discussed.


Singh, K., Kumar, R. and Biswas, B., 2021. High average-utility itemsets mining: a survey. Applied Intelligence, pp.1-38. High average-utility itemsets mining: a survey | SpringerLink


Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption Algorithm Modeling on CPU Execution Time as Employed Over a Mobile Environment.

International Journal of Natural Computing Research (IJNCR), 10(2), pp.21-41.

This paper presents results on modelling of AES and RSA encryption algorithms in terms of CPU execution time, considering different modelling techniques such as linear, quadratic, cubic, and exponential mathematical models, each with the application of piecewise approximations. framework is used to implement this study. The authors consider the symmetric encryption algorithm named AES and the asymmetric encryption algorithm named RSA to carry out this study. This study recommends quadratic piecewise approximation modelling as the most optimized model for modelling the CPU execution time of AES and RSA towards encryption of data files. The model proposed in this study can be extended to other symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms, besides taking them over a mobile cloud environment.

Thomas, A. and Narasimhan, V.L., 2021. Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption Algorithm Modeling on CPU Execution Time as Employed Over a Mobile Environment. International Journal of Natural Computing Research (IJNCR)10(2), pp.21-41.

Antibacterial Activity of 2-Picolyl-polypyridyl-Based Ruthenium (II/III) Complexes on Non-Drug-Resistant and Drug-Resistant Bacteria.

Bioinorganic chemistry and applications, 2021.

A new hexadentate 2-picolyl-polypyridyl-based ligand (4, 4′-(butane-1, 4-diylbis(oxy))bis(N, N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline)) (2BUT) (1) and its corresponding Ru(II/III) complexes were synthesized and characterized, followed by assessment of their possible bioactive properties towards drug-resistant and non-drug-resistant bacteria. Spectroscopic characterization of the ligand was done using proton NMR, FTIR, and ESI-MS, which showed that the ligand was successfully synthesized. The Ru(II/III) complexes were characterized by FTIR, UV/Vis, elemental analysis, proton NMR, ESI-MS, and magnetic susceptibility studies. The analysis of ESI-MS data of the complexes showed that they were successfully synthesized. Empirical formulae derived from elemental analysis of the complexes also indicated successful synthesis and relative purity of the complexes. The important functional groups of the ligands could be observed after complexation using FTIR. Magnetic susceptibility data and electronic spectra indicated that both complexes adopt a low spin configuration. The disc diffusion assay was used to test the compounds for antibiotic activity on two bacteria species and their drug-resistant counterparts. The compounds displayed antibiotic activity towards the two non-drug-resistant bacteria. As for the drug-resistant organisms, only [Ru2(2BUT)(DMF)2(DPA)2](BH4)43 and 2, 2-dipyridylamine inhibited the growth of MRSA. Gel electrophoresis DNA cleavage studies showed that the ligands had no DNA cleaving properties while all the complexes denatured the bacterial DNA. Therefore, the complexes may have DNA nuclease activity towards the bacterial genomic material.


Matshwele, J.T., Odisitse, S., Mapolelo, D., Leteane, M., Julius, L.G., Nkwe, D.O. and Nareetsile, F., 2021. Antibacterial Activity of 2-Picolyl-polypyridyl-Based Ruthenium (II/III) Complexes on Non-Drug-Resistant and Drug-Resistant Bacteria. Bioinorganic chemistry and applications2021

Moderators of the Effect of Viewer Satisfaction on Loyalty Towards Television Channels in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Journal of African Business.

Based on a survey of 501 television viewers, this study investigated factors moderating the effect of viewer satisfaction on viewer loyalty toward television channels. Research hypotheses were tested using moderated regression analysis. The study found that viewer satisfaction, perceived service quality, corporate reputation, switching cost and price all positively influenced viewer loyalty while corporate reputation, gender, age, education and income did not influence viewer loyalty. Only switching cost and price had significant moderating effects on the viewer satisfaction-viewer loyalty relationship; the rest of the hypothesized relationships were insignificant. The findings of this study have theoretical, practical and future research implications.

Makanyeza, C., Gomwe, A.G. and Jaiyeoba, O.O., 2021. Moderators of the Effect of Viewer Satisfaction on Loyalty Towards Television Channels in Harare, Zimbabwe. Journal of African Business, pp.1-18. 

Green Corporate Governance for Greening Universities: A Non-Linear Model of Innovation Analysis

This research aims to ascertain how universities’ stakeholders perceive the reconfiguration of Corporate/University Governance to enable the production of green knowledge and innovation needed for sustainable development. A questionnaire was applied to 89 academic stakeholders (90% confidence level, 5% relative tolerable error), consisting of three interrelated Likert items, grouped under the Green Corporate Governance (GCG) construct. In the process, the perceptions of five universities’ stakeholders (Professors, Senior Lecturers, Academic Managers, Non-Academic Managers, and Students) were successfully collected. Chi-Square tests reflected that all the stakeholders agreed that the reconfiguration of the university governance system is warranted. The data analysis (contingency tables) revealed a chi-square test statistic lower than the chi-square value, signifying that all five stakeholders perceive in the same direction that the conventional university governance system needs to be reformed. This research will spur policymakers, governors, and university or education system managers to take appropriate actions to reconfigure the university governance system towards green corporate governance. 

Liyanage, S.I.H., Ferasso, M. and Lima, U., 2021. Green Corporate Governance for Greening Universities: A Non-Linear Model of Innovation Analysis. GREEN_CORPORATE_GOVERNANCE_FOR_GREENING.pdf (

Greening Universities with Mode 3 and Quintuple Helix Model of Innovation–Production of Knowledge and Innovation in Knowledge-Based Economy, Botswana.

Journal of the Knowledge Economy, pp.1-31.

Most of the knowledge-based economies (KBEs) operate in a neoclassical economic model that does not recognize the importance of natural resources and sustainability beyond the market forces. In contrast, KBEs that rely on endogenous factors harmonize with the enlightened anthropocentrism for sustainable development with scientific and technical abilities to design the ecological system for infusing human values into nature. For example, the Quintuple Helix Model of Innovation. In this exploratory research, it was found that the conventional structure of universities in Botswana is unable to produce glocal green knowledge and innovation in their mainstream knowledge production process due to bureaucratism, rationalism, myths and ceremonies, isomorphism, and legitimacy whereas institutional logics and agency of social actors support for Paris Climate Agreement and 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Hence, the Quintuple Helix Model with Mode 3-Knowledge production is used to redesign universities’ conventional structures. This study perused two sources of data, document analysis, and interviews. Data collected from documents were analyzed by axial coding. After that, interview data from five internal stakeholders were collected based on prior codes, themes, and concepts developed with document analysis. They were thematically analyzed for triangulation. Finally, the theory was developed by induction underpinning with interpretive philosophy when redesigning universities’ conventional structure. The proposed model designed is called the “Green University System” to facilitate the production of glocal green knowledge and innovation for sustainable development with Mode 3 and Quintuple Helix model of innovation.


Liyanage, S.I.H. and Netswera, F.G., 2021. Greening Universities with Mode 3 and Quintuple Helix Model of Innovation–Production of Knowledge and Innovation in Knowledge-Based Economy, Botswana. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, pp.1-31.

Insights from EU Policy Framework in Aligning Sustainable Finance for Sustainable Development in Africa and Asia

International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 11(1), p.459.

It is conspicuous that the mainstream financial system in the EU is transforming into a sustainable financial system by a supra/national policy and institutional framework for meeting the goals of SDGs and the targets of the Paris Agreement for climate change together with Nationally Determined Contribution. However, Botswana or Sri Lanka has no such framework. Hence, a need of the hour has arisen to evaluate the sustainable finance policies in Botswana, Sri Lanka, together with the EU seeking insights from the EU’s policy framework. Since sustainable finance is not a well-grown branch of the conventional mainstream financial system, the nature of the knowledge is produced by social constructivism based on the grounded theory and the theory is inductively developed for achieving the purpose of the research. The study found, among other things, that incorporating existing policies into the multiple ministries and affiliated institutions together with the current industry-led policy initiatives to manage ESG risks are not adequate. Hence it is recommended various insights to be taken into consideration by the policymakers to formulate a national framework for mobilizing public and private capital to meet the goals of sustainability.


Liyanage, S.I.H., Netswera, F.G. and Motsumi, A., 2021. Insights from EU Policy Framework in Aligning Sustainable Finance for Sustainable Development in Africa and Asia. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 11(1), p.459.

Water Conservation Through Voluntary Responsible

In 2016, the Paris agreement on climate change agreed to limit global warming to well below 2°C, and ideally 1.5°C by the end of the century. Even though the global temperature on track shows a rise towards 3.2°C by the end of the century breaking the 1.5°C targets by 2040, one wonders how the Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR) assessed the vulnerability of Botswana in reaching the limit, 2°C. Accordingly, Botswana will show a steady rise in temperature to 2.8°C, the annual rainfall will drop by 9% and increase in dry days by 17 extra days. In addition, even the Limpopo catchment in Botswana will show a decline of 36%. Given these scenarios, water as a lifelong commodity becomes highly vulnerable in Botswana. With a view to mitigating the intensity, the local, regional and international legal, policy and institutional framework legislated, agreed otherwise ratified expects sustainable water management by voluntary, responsible behaviour from the consumers apart from other stakeholders in Botswana. For example, 2030 Agenda for 17 SDGs: the SDG 06: Clean Water and Sanitation & 12th SDG: Responsible Consumption and Production. Consequently, this study qualitatively investigated the ex-ante and ex-post behaviour of a consumer manifested by the strategic management in the light of the theory of planned behaviour for the water conservation project implemented by the installation of newer water-efficient appliances at Botho University in a landlocked country, Botswana. The test of theory of planned behaviour finds that the attitudes, social norms and Perceived Behavioural Control of the strategic management made strong intention for the responsible behavioural change in implementing the project. Further, the project has been able to save water by 80%, supply water continuously to consumers, protect the environment and further a cost-saving to the university. These findings will be significant to ascertain how antecedent factors determine the decision-making behaviour of a water conservation project. Such understanding acts as a catalyst for African universities to be a beacon of vision and mission in water conservation, distribution and governance in Africa in which continent 33% of people are affected by water scarcity which is getting worse with urbanization, population, industrial use and climate change. Keywords: Global Warming, SDGs, Water Conservation, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Voluntary Behaviour


Shantha Indrajith Hikkaduwa Liyanage, Venkataraman Vishwanathan, 2020. Water Conservation Through Voluntary Responsible

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